Archive for the ‘Stomach and intestines’ Category

Anal incontinence

Thursday, May 27th, 2010

Anal incontinence, or fecal incontinence, is if you have periods with leakage of stool that you can not avoid with the will. The reason could be hemorrhoids, an injury related to surgery or childbirth, a neurological disease, intestinal inflammation, weakening of the sphincter, and more. Contact your family doctor or gynecologist if you have a problem.

Milder symptoms of anal incontinence may be that you can not control gas and leakage of moisture or mucus that provides patches on underwear.

It is very taboo to talk about bowel habits, and many people are embarrassed and therefore reluctant to reveal their symptoms, even for its immediate surroundings. Many mistakenly believe that they alone are entitled to have leakage from the gut.

Occasional problems with diarrhea and difficulty in getting to the toilet is not considered incontinence.

Symptoms

Incontinence from the gut is a symptom and not a disease. Symptoms can vary and can include:

  • Difficulties in the gases.
  • Moisture or stains in underwear.
  • Leakage of loose stool.
  • Leakage of solid stool.
  • Urgent need for displacement and difficulty by will hold back stool.

The ability to by will be able to control urine and stool is made by a subtle interplay between different functions in the body. The cause of fecal incontinence can be a combination of several factors. It is therefore important to identify symptoms.

Anal incontinence is common in women than men and more common in older than younger.

The most common form of incontinence is leakage from the gut of moisture and solvent. It is inter alia due to hemorrhoids, bulge of intestinal mucosa. This is usually easy to deal with topical therapy.

A more comprehensive incontinence, as major leakage of gas and / or feces can inter alia be due to an injury in the muscles or nerves in the pelvic floor in connection with surgery or childbirth. Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and dementia may impair sensation of an inability to feel penetration.

Inflammatory bowel diseases and even tumors can cause you to have an increased sensitivity of the rectum at frequent urgency and impaired ability to hold back. Many years of strained when constipation can also cause incontinence. Like other muscles weakened sphincter with age.

Diarrhea with frequent urgency can lead to incontinence because of the loose stools. It can be a quick temporary inconvenience, but it will have blood in your stool, it is important to seek medical advice for an investigation. Bleeding and diarrhea or incontinence can be caused by inflammation of the intestine, tumors or intestinal prolapse (prolapse). All of these diseases should be investigated and treated by a doctor.

Self-care

  • It is important that you have regular meals, beverages and toilet habits.
  • Try to schedule a toilet about an hour after eating or when the stools tend to penetrate.
  • Do not rush to the toilet.
  • Try to train your pelvic floor and to avoid heavy lifting.
  • To avoid itching, it is important to protect the skin around the anus. Avoid overly rough-drying. Please take a shower without soap.
  • Use the ointment, for example Inutyolsalva, which gives the skin extra protection from moisture.
  • There are special incontinence of stool incontinence. Turn to your GP and district nurse or specialist clinic. There are in addition to incontinence with charcoal filters also an anal plug that acts as a “pad” of the rectum.

Find Care

To get to a specialist require a referral. Contact your family doctor or gynecologist for an initial investigation, treatment and possible referral.

Ask your family doctor:

  • if you find it hard to keep your stools
  • If you have problems with chronic constipation
  • If you have bleeding or pain during bowel movements.

The address and phone number of a kind reception, go to Find Health Care. You can also contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts.

Investigation

Tell your family doctor or gynecologist about your symptoms, it can provide good guidance for appropriate treatment. If the appeal can not be rectified recommended referral to medical specialists. In specialist made a careful examination of the anus and rectum. Often made rektoscopi. Then, by means of a tube instruments inspect the intestinal mucosa 10-15 cm.

Sometimes the investigation completed by other studies.

Pressure measurement (manometry anorectal) provides a measure of how strong your muscles are final. The measurement is performed using a thin plastic catheter that is connected to a pressure gauge. It measures the pressure in the rectum (anal canal) at rest and at the pinch.

Ultrasound provides a picture of the final muscles and showing any damaged areas.

The nerves that provide input to the final muscle can be examined with special tests, EMG.

By injecting contrast medium in the intestine and vagina can you see any anatomical changes such as prolapse, rectum, hernia formation, but the lower part of the intestine. The method is called defekografi (discharge x-ray).

Treatment

Changes in dietary habits with the help of a dietician or control of any food allergy can sometimes give good results in patients with incontinence.

It is also possible with specific pelvic floor exercises strengthen the pelvic floor and improve the control of the sphincter. For some patients, so-called “Biofeedback” training may be helpful. There are pelvic floor exercises with the aid of a device that presents a visual feedback and facilitates the ability to find the muscles. Training takes place under the supervision of a urotherapist who is a specialist trained nurse or physiotherapist. You also get instructions for home exercises, general advice, dietary advice and prescription of aids and more.

Muscle damage can sometimes be treated by surgery. If the inflammation of the rectum is the cause of incontinence medical treatment can lead to an improvement.

Increased knowledge by including new survey also provides opportunities to develop new treatments. There is an ongoing intensive development of various surgical methods to strengthen and / or to implant an artificial sphincter muscle. In recent years, there is a new technique that using a pacemaker stimulates the sphincter to be stronger abstracts, sacral Neuro Stimulation (SNS).

An ostomy surgery may be a treatment option for anal incontinence and can lead to an improved quality of life.

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Acute pancreatitis

Thursday, May 27th, 2010

Acute pancreatitis can you get if you drink too much alcohol or if you have a gallstone disease. It makes a lot of pain high up in the stomach. Sometimes the pain radiates to your back, between shoulder blades. Please contact the care of acute problems of this type.

Pancreas, pancreatic, is 15-20 centimeters long gland behind the stomach, the duodenum and the spleen. It produces pancreatic juice for digestion and hormones on blood sugar balance.

It is common for inflamed pancreas of alcohol to excess. Scientists believe it is because the alcohol creates an inflammation-causing chain reaction in the glandular tissue. Eventually, the inflammation can become chronic and lead to chronic pain, poor nutrition and diabetes.

Pancreatic cancer can also become inflamed when there are gallstones, and this has now become the most common cause. After the gallstones are small ports in the aisles outside the gallbladder, they can temporarily block the path of pancreatic juice.

Symptoms

Magsmärtan of pancreatitis will quickly, in five to ten minutes. It makes a lot of pain high up in the stomach, the left rib arch. Sometimes the evil rays of your back, between shoulder blades. The stomach becomes distended and tender.
The patient is pale and cold sweat, could be nausea and vomiting. Symptoms similar to those in acute myocardial infarction or broken ulcer.

Prevention

Be careful with alcohol. If you have gallstones, talk to your doctor about making a gallstone operation.

Self-care

If you got the disease because you drank too much alcohol, you must refrain from drinking alcohol. Do not eat fatty foods and apples if you have gallstone symptoms ease.

Investigation

The doctor will take blood samples and examining the stomach from the feel of it. The stomach is also examined by ultrasound, CT scan or MRI.

Treatment

When searching for acute pancreatitis, you get strong pain killers syringes and drip. You must not eat or drink until the acute symptoms have disappeared.

Operation

Immediate surgery is rarely necessary. Your symptoms caused by gallstone attack usually gallbladder surgically removed when the inflammation subsided.

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Winter flu

Tuesday, May 11th, 2010

Winter flu usually starts very suddenly with vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. The moves by itself after a few days. Make sure to be fully healthy in two days before going back to work or school. It is important that you drink a lot when you have winter vomiting disease. Contact your GP if you vomit a lot and do not get enough of liquids or if you urinate a lot less.

Winter flu is a gastrointestinal disease caused by a so-called calicivirus. The disease is very contagious. A single person can infect an entire workplace or a kindergarten.

The disease is the most up to date between November and April, with a peak between January and March. That is why it is called winter flu.

The incubation period is 12 to 48 hours. Incubation period is the time from being infected to become ill.

Symptoms of winter flu

Winter flu may resemble other stomach diseases. What is different is the sudden onset. Winter flu usually starts very suddenly with vomiting, diarrhea and stomach pain. Those going in one to three days. It may also have fever, headache and muscle aches.

After having had the disease can have some short-term protection, a so-called privileges. But you can get sick several times.

Prevent winter flu

In order to avoid becoming infected, you should:

  • Always wash your hands thoroughly, especially before meals and after using the toilet
  • use liquid soap and paper towels in places where many are gathered, such as schools, kindergartens, workplaces and other public places
  • avoid eating the buffets where many people come into contact with food
  • avoid upset stomach to visit people.

Winter flu spread:

  • through direct or indirect contact with infected persons
  • through food handled by a person who is or is becoming ill
  • through drinking water or food washed in contaminated water, and then not cooked, such as frozen berries and vegetables. Calicivirus is destroyed at temperatures above 70 ° C, but not at freezing.
  • by some shellfish stored in water, as oysters.

A practical rule is applied in winter vomiting disease is that you should be completely symptom-free for at least two days before going back to work, school or other activities.

When you are winter vomiting disease

When you have winter flu should consider the following:

  • wash your hands often
  • do not cook for other
  • you get the small amounts of fluid at frequent intervals
  • be extra careful with your personal hygiene
  • not to be in places where you can infect others
  • stay home from preschool, school or work at least two days after you become completely symptom-free.

The importance of fluid

It is important to restore the body’s fluid balance by drinking a lot. The body takes up the liquid through the best that you drink in small portions at frequent intervals. If you have trouble, you can drink water teskedsvis.

When diarrhea subside, you can start eating normally again, but continue to drink frequently while the stools are loose.

If you throw a lot or have diarrhea a lot to lose both body fluids and salts. You can then drink fluid to replace water and salts that your body got rid of.

You can buy at pharmacies or rehydration mix yourself, click on the link fluid under Links. Give not own mixed rehydration for children under 12.

Find Care

The disease itself is not dangerous, but you should contact your GP if you do not get enough of liquids or if you urinate a lot less.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you can find by clicking on Find Health Care at the top of the page. Now is also possible to contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts.

Important!

Always call your GP before going there. Then prepare for your clinic visit and make sure you do not infect others.

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Food poisoning

Tuesday, May 11th, 2010

Food poisoning can be of many different bacteria and viruses. Symptoms can vary, but usually you vomit and have diarrhea. It is important to replace the lost fluid in the right way. Rehydration, you can buy at pharmacies. Prevent food poisoning by washing your hands often and to handle food properly.

Food poisoning is likely if more than two persons who ate the same food may be symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Classic food poisoning caused by toxins that are formed when bacteria grow in food that is not stored properly. Food poisoning can also be caused by viruses. Bacteria such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and ETEC bacterium, which is the main cause of so-called traveler’s diarrhea, may also give rise to symptoms that may be difficult to distinguish from symptoms of food poisoning. But in these cases is usually the time until the stroke is slightly longer. There are, however, that, especially when traveling abroad to countries with lower standards of hygiene, infection by these bacteria while you get food poisoning.

If you think you have been food poisoning, please contact your community. Please contact also the place where you have been eating so that they can prevent more infection and / or save some of the potentially contaminated food.
Symptoms of food poisoning
It takes between one and 48 hours after eating the infected food until the symptoms manifest themselves, depending on the infectious agent behind. The onset is often dramatic, and you often feel very ill with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and stomach ache.

Food poisoning caused by bacteria can be by themselves for between 12 hours and two days. Viral infections can sometimes be longer.

All types of foods that are not handled properly can cause food poisoning. Some dishes are more involved in food poisoning than others. Common, however, is that the food has been handled incorrectly, so that the bacteria grown in and / or the persons who handled the food is cooked or lack of hygiene, usually not washed their hands.

  • Pastries, sauces, dressings, sandwiches and canned ham may contain poison from a staphylococcus, a very common skin bacteria. After one to six hours doing the stricken ill and vomit, get stomach aches and diarrhea.
  • Cooked meat, poultry or fish återuppvärmts may be contaminated with the poison from a klostridiebakterie. The symptoms come after 8-24 hours and is usually thin water diarrhea and stomach pain.
  • Fried rice can contain the toxin from a bacterium that gives vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain 1-16 hours after a meal.
  • The raw fish and raw shellfish, there may be a bacterium that is related to the cholera bacterium. If you are exposed to this bacteria, you get fever and diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus.
  • Some viruses can also give food poisoning. Many of them give similar symptoms such as bacteria with vomiting, diarrhea and stomach pain.

Preventing food poisoning

  • The rule of thumb is that hot food is kept warm (min +60 º C) and cold food should be stored refrigerated (max +8 ° C).
  • Never let food stand in front longer than necessary.
  • Use cooler or kylklampar when you buy food if you have a long way to the store or you’re eating dinner outdoors.
  • Tip: freeze portions / tetra packs of juice or juice and use as kylklampar. Food stays cold and you carry an extra thirst quencher.
  • Make sure the meat of poultry, pork and minced meat is always cooked or grilled.
  • Never place cooked food on the same cutting board or platter that held raw meat it on.
  • Minced meat and shellfish as food and marinated fish are very sensitive. Respect the best-before date printed on the packaging of such products.
  • Heat food properly, preferably to koktemperatur, but at least to +70 º C, both when cooking and heating residues.
  • Cool cooked food down quickly to save. Put such saucepan in cold water and stir. After the food has cooled, place it immediately in the refrigerator or freezer.
  • Raw and cooked foods should be stored in the refrigerator. A good temperature in the refrigerator is +4 ° C. Get like a thermometer in your refrigerator so you can easily check the temperature.
  • Wash hands before preparing food. Have you for example cut raw meat, you should wash your hands with soap and water before continuing with the salad.
  • Clean cutting boards thoroughly after use.
  • Plastic Cutting boards can be washed in a dishwasher and cutting boards made of wood after cleaning, you can heat in the oven at 100-120 ° C for about ten to fifteen minutes. Make sure the cutting board is dry when you put it into the cabinet.
  • Always rinse fruits and vegetables carefully, because soil adhering may contain bacteria.
  • Change dish cloths and dish brushes often so you can avoid unpleasant odors and bacteria growth. It’s fine to wash dishcloths in the washing machine or to cook them. Also wash brush can be boiled or cleaned in the dishwasher. Remember that the dish cloths and dish brushes sours faster during dog days, which occurs July 23 to August 23.
  • Use a special cloth to wipe the furniture. Faeces from birds containing highly infectious agents and the like you do not have to enter into the sink.

Read more in this article Manage your food right.
Self-care in food poisoning
There is no treatment for the poisoning. The only thing you can do is try to alleviate symptoms.

If you vomit a lot and have copious diarrhea, it is good to drink because the body fluid, liquid addition, even loss of salts. It is important to restore fluid balance by drinking a lot. Rehydration for adults, you can mix yourself or buy at the pharmacy. For children, it is important to choose the pharmacy pre-mixed fluid.

You understand yourself better through the liquid to drink in small portions at frequent intervals. When the diarrhea subside, you can start eating normally again. But continue to drink plenty as long as the stools are loose.
Find Care

Contact the emergency department

If you have diarrhea and vomiting that lasts more than a few days you should contact emergency ward in hospital. Tell your doctor where you have eaten, if you were abroad or if someone else has had similar symptoms.

The pronounced discomfort, especially when persistent vomiting in children, it can sometimes be difficult to replace fluid losses through increased intake of fluids. Usually in children, less often in adults, may be no treatment with drip in hospital may be needed. Children who exhibit any of the following symptoms should be evaluated by van professionals:

  • is dull
  • unable or unwilling to drink
  • has not urinated in 10 hours
  • have vomited repeatedly over several hours
  • have repeated diarrhea which is not reduced within a 10-hour period

The address and telephone number of a kind reception, go to Find Health Care. You can also contact some receptions and order a time via e-Care Guide Service My health care contacts
Investigation of food poisoning
Samples of feces does not say much about what you have suffered, as it usually is toxins from bacteria and not the bacteria itself that provides food poisoning. If it does, you can sample the food and find the right bacteria. It is often useful only if many people have been poisoned. Most of the time you go on the symptoms when to make a diagnosis.

If it is suspected that the cause is a virus can be diagnosed through tests on the stool.

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