Archive for the ‘Muscle, skeletal disorders’ Category

Tennis elbow

Wednesday, June 9th, 2010

Tennis elbow, lateral epicondylit, is an inflammation of the muscle attachment on the outside of the elbow. For tennis elbow, you usually hurt the forearm above page, but you may also have pain in your elbow when you extend your wrist by bending the hand upwards. If you have difficulty performing your regular chores, you should contact your GP.

Tennis elbow due to overwork your muscles by repeated, unilateral movements of the wrist. An inflammation is caused when the muscle attachment on the outside of the elbow. You may have painted, hand-worked or spent much computer mouse.

Although it is traditionally known as tennis elbow inflammation is not common in tennis players, rather the reverse.

Tennis elbow is also called epicondylit. Epicondylit is more common in women than in men, and often affects people who are 40 years or older.

Symptoms

Symptoms of tennis elbow may include:

  • The pain is mainly along the forearm surface, or in the elbow as you extend your wrist upward.
  • Symptoms may be insidious or sudden.
  • You may also feel stiff in the arm and it can be difficult to extend the elbow completely.
  • You may also feel that you have less power in his hand.
  • Symptoms do you find it difficult to perform your regular duties and chores.
  • Problems often experience long-lasting, but the inflammation is almost always disappears by itself within a year or two. If you have major problems you should seek medical advice.

Prevention

The weaker muscles are, the greater the risk for symptoms to come back. You should continue to train your arm when you become pain free. Your doctor and / or physical therapist can give you good tips on how to train.

If you work a lot with the computer mouse you may want to vary the arm movements. You can switch manually or use a different type of pointing device and an ergonomic keyboard facilities.

Self-care

Try to avoid movements that hurt. Other than the movement that caused tennis elbow may entertain the appeal. Think therefore on how you use your hands and try to avoid that stretch of the wrist. Muscles strained even by slight movements such as lifting a saucepan, pour the milk or using the computer mouse. Maybe you can do some things with the other arm.

The physiotherapist will give you advice on how you can train yourself.

If there is any sport that triggered the problem, you take a break from it.

It is important to remember that even the most troublesome tennis elbow in most cases heal within one to two years without treatment.

Investigation

When visiting the doctor, you describe your symptoms. The doctor examines you and test how the muscles work. Often times this investigation.

Treatment

You should avoid the movements that hurts the most. You are usually recommended rest, perhaps in combination with a special brace that distributes the pressure on the sore area of the elbow.

Pharmaceuticals

You can use drugs that reduce inflammation. The doctor may give a steroid spray directly into the area that hurts. Since symptoms usually disappear, but they can come back after a few months. Other methods include acupuncture, ultrasound and laser treatment. Consideration of a physical therapist is a good complement.

In particularly severe cases, surgery may be appropriate.

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Bone Cancer

Wednesday, June 9th, 2010

Bone cancer is usually secondary. This means that it is in bone metastases that have spread there from another cancer, prostate cancer commonly, breast cancer or lung cancer. It can also be a primary cancer. Search care if you have pain in your arms, legs or back with no other explanation.

Primary bone cancer

Benign, benign, and malignant, malignant, changes may occur in the skeleton. Even benign tumors can change and damage bones. Benign bone changes usually occur at 5-25 years of age.

Primary bone cancer is rare. Each year more than 80 people fall ill. Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma kondrosarkom and is the most common forms of primary bone cancer.

  • Osteosarcoma usually affects children between the ages of 10-15 years and the tumor is often around the knee or shoulder.
  • Ewing’s sarcoma also affects children, but typically occurs in the middle of the femur or vertebrae, pelvis or ribs.
  • Kondrosarkom grow slowly and usually affects older people.

Symptoms

Symptoms of malignant, malignant, bone changes are suffering, often at night. At a later stage, the tumor is often swelling.

Investigation

An ordinary X-ray examination is often enough to see whether it is benign or malignant bone change. Full diagnosis is usually finnålspunktion (cytology) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Treatment

Bone Cancer treated with chemotherapy (chemo) both before and after surgery. Sometimes this is combined with radiation therapy. Bone cancer is usually sensitive to chemotherapy and therefore the prognosis is relatively good today. The survival rates after five years is between 60-80 percent.

Secondary bone cancer / metastasis of the bone

Secondary bone cancer begins as metastases from other cancers such as breast cancer or prostate cancer that has spread to the bone via the blood stream. Half of the people affected by a cancer may spread to other organs. Half of these may be metastases to bone. About 10 000 people are affected each year by the metastases in the bones.

Metastases in the skeleton is rarely a direct cause of death, but degrades the quality of life and shortens the lifetime of the suffering. Skeletal Metastases can make bones so brittle bones that may break with almost no load. Metastases usually occur in the spine, pelvis and ribs, but also in skull, femur and humerus.

Symptoms

The first symptom of bone metastases is pain in the musculoskeletal system. Later symptoms may include fractures of large bones near zero load.

Hypercalcemia, that is, elevated calcium levels in the blood sometimes occur when bone metastases. It manifests as nausea, vomiting, thirst, fatigue and confusion.

Investigation

To investigate skelettmetastasering used skeletal radiology and skelettscintigrafi. Usually gives a finnålspunktion (cytology).

Treatment

The treatment of bone metastases focus on enhancing quality of life and increase the lifespan of patients. The forecast looks like depends on the type of primary cancer patient.

Bone metastases can be treated in different ways:

  • Radiation therapy can promote pain relief, prevent fractures and reduce the pressure on the spinal cord if there are tumors of the spine.
  • If patients have widespread metastases can give radioactive substances that act as an intravenous therapy.
  • The fractures and severe pain, surgery may be appropriate.
  • Metastases in the spine causing paralysis is a serious condition that often must undergo surgery urgently to minimize permanent damage. To reduce the pressure on the spinal cord causing paralysis symptoms, are injured parts of the vertebrae removed and then usually stabilize the spine with metal rods.

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