Archive for the ‘Renal and urinary disorders’ Category

Urinary tract infection (cystitis, cystitis)

Saturday, July 31st, 2010

Urinary tract infection which is limited to the bladder is called cystitis. It is common to feel when pee more often than otherwise. You may have pain in my stomach, it can sting when you urinate or you can easily become sick. Sexually transmitted infections can produce similar symptoms, so you should contact the clinic if you have trouble.

Urinary tract infection caused by bacteria. Often do you yourself are already on them. The bacteria which have penetrated into the bladder through the urethra. The infection is not contagious between people.

Most common is coliform bacteria, normally present in the gut and around the anus and that which is completely harmless. Although other bacteria may cause an infection if they come to the bladder, where it usually is not bacteria. Some people have bacteria in the urine without having the inconvenience of this, which is called asymptomatic bakterieuri, and are not usually treated.

If bacteria from the bladder will continue even higher up in the body, through the ureter to the kidney, it can lead to a more severe form of urinary tract infection, renal pelvis inflammation.

For women, cystitis is a common and in most cases, harmless condition. Men are affected more often, because the man’s urethra length provides better protection against bacteria than short women. When women suffer from urinary tract infections are often also infected prostate gland.


Cystitis can come on suddenly with distinct symptoms. More common is that you have mild symptoms, which sometimes grows later. Some common signs:

  • Urgency, you know you pee more often than otherwise.
  • Pain when you urinate.
  • Feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely.
  • Urine has been cloudy, smelly or blood mixed.
  • Hard to hold urine.
  • Mild nausea or pain in the lower abdomen.


Older people can also become suddenly confused.


Drink enough so that you urinate on a regular basis. When the bladder is flushed properly. When you urinate, it is important that your bladder is emptied completely, otherwise it increases the risk of infection. One trick is to walk around a few steps when you are peeing. You can then try to empty your bladder again.

Some women may often cystitis after intercourse. A tip is when to pee every time.

Do not wash the genital area more frequently than once a day. If you wash up more often may increase the symptoms. Remember that washing and drying should always be done from front to rear to reduce the risk of bacteria from the tail reaches the urethra.

Find Care

Contact your GP for symptoms if you:

  • are a woman and have pronounced or prolonged symptoms
  • it is
  • have children with disorders of the urinary tract or unclear fever
  • is pregnant
  • have diabetes or another illness that makes you more susceptible to infection.
    also have chills or fever over 38 degrees
  • suspect that you have a sexually transmitted disease chlamydia or gonorrhea
  • has blood in urine
  • are older and suddenly become confused or feel generally impaired with no other apparent cause


Occasional mild symptoms in women need not always be treated. Make sure to drink a lot and urinate frequently. Drinking acidic beverages such as juices, can help.

Sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia may cause similar symptoms, so it is important to examine themselves.


A short course of treatment is usually adequate antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection.

For recurring infections, it is good to switch between different kinds of antibiotics. For older women with fragile mucosa, treatment with estrogens have a good effect. In rare cases, prolonged treatment with antibiotics may be needed.

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Urinary tract infection in children

Saturday, July 31st, 2010

Urinary tract infection in children is quite common. Among very young children, it is mostly boys who are affected. After six months of age, urinary tract infection is more common in girls. It can be difficult to detect infection in young children. Sometimes the child just a high fever. If your baby has high fever and / or are affected public should contact the hospital.

Urinary tract infection is usually due to so-called coliform bacteria have spread from the intestine up through the urethra to the bladder. A urinary tract infection without fever is usually limited to the bladder (cystitis) and need to be treated to alleviate discomfort. The infection generally provides no complications.

For the younger children often spread the bacteria further up into the kidney and renal pelvis inflammation provides. This gives the child a high fever. When small children are renal pelvis inflammation may be a sign that the child has a malformation of the urinary tract, such as a stricture. Therefore it is important that young children receive a proper investigation.


In small children it is sometimes difficult to detect urinary tract infection. The only sign may be that the child is not gaining weight. Older children often complain that it hurts when they urinate and the need to urinate often. Sometimes they urinate on themselves too easily.

High fever without other symptoms, like intermittent fever spikes, may be due to a renal pelvic inflammation. Some children with renal pelvic inflammation was also hurt in the stomach or side and vomit.


Urinary tract infections may come back and it is important that parents are alert to the signs. When you suspect your child has the infection, ensure that the child may submit urine samples. A little older girls (preschool age and early school age) may sometimes recurrent urinary tract infections. These girls often have problems passing urine and may urinate on themselves during the day. First, you must then ensure that the girl regularly go to the toilet. If it does not help, you should contact a pediatrician for further assistance.

Urinary tract infection is not due to a lack of hygiene. Excessive washing is more harm than good because the mucous membranes may be irritated. Girls with urinary tract infections should wash as usual. It is important to wash and wipe themselves from front to rear.

When a child had a urinary tract infection may often different parents advice on preventive measures, to avoid swimming, keep warm and to drink a lot. Some children might be helped by this, but it has never been shown that it can do no good.


Urinary tract infection is not contagious.


Children with fever should stay home until the fever went down. When the baby are doing well, it can go back to preschool or school, even if antibiotic treatment is continued for a few days.


If a child shows signs of urinary tract infection urine samples taken. Young children find it difficult to urinate on command, and therefore is often a so-called påsprov. A plastic bag taped around the penis or snippan to collect urine.


Young children with renal pelvic inflammation should be managed by pediatricians. The youngest children are often hospitalized for a few days in order to ensure that the treatment works.


If the urine test indicates that the child has a urinary tract infection are given antibiotics for about ten days.


In small children with urinary tract infection usually x-ray of the urinary tract to see if there is narrowing and / or other abnormalities of the urethra or ureter. In some cases, such a change need to be addressed.


Children who had renal pelvic inflammation should be followed up with renal imaging after a time that you should ensure that they do not have scars on the kidney.

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Renal failure (uremia)

Saturday, July 31st, 2010

Renal failure, which can be acute or chronic, meaning that the kidneys are not working properly. Symptoms may include swelling, shortness of breath and high blood pressure. In particular, the state has come quickly, please go back to the emergency room. If symptoms have been more insidious and you are not heavily affected, you should contact your GP.

Renal failure leading to symptoms is called uremia. The permit can be fatal if untreated. In kidney failure, you can get short of breath, convulsions, become confused, dazed and lose consciousness. Renal failure can be either chronic or acute.

In severe renal failure, water can accumulate in the body so as to become swollen and may have difficulty breathing. Blood pressure may rise and you may feel bad because the waste products accumulate and poison the body.

Kidneys job is mainly to maintain the body’s water and salt balance and excrete waste products. In addition, the kidney produces important hormones that regulate blood pressure and the formation of red blood cells.

Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure caused by chronic kidney inflammation, and hereditary renal diseases. Although diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis and other systemic diseases can lead to chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure may affect and damage all tissues and organs in the body, such as heart and blood vessels, bone, nerves and muscles.


In chronic renal failure developed progressive disease and symptoms come only after a long illness. A common symptom is that you accumulate fluid, may become swollen and may be high blood pressure.

You may also feel unusually tired and decrepit, have poor appetite and difficulty concentrating. You may look pale due to anemia which is common in chronic renal failure. The whole general condition deteriorates.

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure caused by various diseases such as kidney inflammation, and conditions where there is an obstacle to urinavflödet, such as prostate enlargement, kidney stones and so on. Acute kidney failure can also occur when too little blood comes to the kidneys, which in dehydration or heart failure. Although certain drugs, which some painkillers, and mushroom poisoning may cause acute renal failure.


The process is much faster in acute renal failure. A sign may be to reduce sharply the amount of urine and in some cases cut off. It happens, however, not always – you can produce as much urine as before even if you get acute renal failure. Other symptoms include poor appetite, nausea, vomiting and malaise.

Without treatment, kidney disease, a difficult person will eventually get short of breath, convulsions, become confused and dazed and finally become unconscious.

Advice for renal failure

It is important to be frugal with salt. Once kidney function has dropped to about one fifth of the normal, there may also be wise to also eat less protein (meat, fish, dairy products). You should never reduce your protein intake without talking to your doctor and a dietician.

Because some drugs can damage the kidneys, you should not take medications without your doctor’s advice. Smoking and high and prolonged use of painkillers increases the risk of renal failure.

Find Care
Hospital emergency rooms

If you suspect you or someone else has fallen ill with severe kidney failure, you should contact the emergency ward in hospital.
Medical Center

For less severe symptoms, believed to be kidney failure, consult your health care center. Some simple tests provide rapid clearance.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you can find by clicking on Find Health Care.

You can also contact some receptions and order a time via e-Care Guide service My health care contacts.

Investigation of renal failure

Kidney disease can be easily detected by blood tests and urine tests. High levels of toxins in the blood and protein in urine suggest kidney disease. More accurate diagnosis of renal failure determined by ultrasonography of the kidneys and possibly a kidney biopsy. This means that a sample of kidney tissue taken for microscopic examination.

Have you suffered from chronic kidney failure, you need to regularly give blood and urine tests to check the amount of toxins in the blood and the presence of protein in urine. Blood pressure, which rise with kidney disease, should also be carefully controlled.

Treatment of renal failure

The first attempts to treat kidney disease with drugs. With drugs and changing dietary habits can be the body’s fluid and mineral balance normalized.


Becomes severe kidney weight, you must be treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is a treatment in which the blood is cleansed of waste products artificially. It can be done either in hospital or at home.


At transplantation, the patient is a new kidney from either a relative or a deceased donor. After a kidney transplant requires lifelong treatment with cortisone and chemotherapy for the body not to alienate the foreign body.

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Kidney stones

Saturday, July 31st, 2010

Kidney stones consist of salt crystals that form in the kidneys . Stones that do not pass out with urine can be either trapped in the kidneys or ureters and cause a kidney stone attack . It will thoroughly evil and you must seek emergency care . Infection and blood in urine may be another sign of kidney stones . Contact your GP if you suspect kidney stones .

Kidney stones can be painful even when the stone is not blocking the outflow from the kidney or ureter . If the stone stops the flow leads to a kidney stone attack that needs emergency treatment .

Patients in Sweden often have kidney stones of calcium salt . Both your eating habits , metabolism and intestinal function influence the formation of crystals . The crystals remain in the kidney may be due to poorly draining urine from the kidney to the bladder .

Men suffer more from kidney stones than women . The risk of getting kidney stones is greatest between the ages of 20-50 years for both men and women .

Symptoms of kidney stones

The most common symptoms of stone in the kidney is prolonged or repeated periods of pain , blood in the urine and sometimes even infection of the urinary tract. Although bacteria may be constantly present in the urine .

The stones may cause superficial damage the lining of the renal pelvis or ureters and blood in the urine from these injuries .

Kidney stones

If the stone blocks the flow from the kidney or ureter , it leads to a kidney stone attack . The pain often comes suddenly . As a rule , they start in one part of the back and radiates up into the abdomen , down to the groin or bladder . You may also feel pain or shiver down toward the vagina . You may also feel sick and vomit .

Preventing kidney stones

If you have had kidney stones should drink at least three liters of fluid per day to dilute the urine and thus reduce the risk of new stone formation . The goal is a urine output of at least two liters per day .


If you receive a kidney stone attack , you need medical help to relieve pain . Are kidney stone five to six millimeters or smaller stone can usually pee out . But the stone may get stuck much longer than that before it comes out . When the stone is lost out through the urethra , it does not feel at all. It may also seem like a shiver when you pee .

If kidney stone is so large that it can not pass out yourself , or if the pain does not go over , you get a referral to the hospital . An X-ray can show where the stone is and how big it is . The size of the stone and the state determines how you choose to remove it.

Of all kidney stones that are discovered must be between 20 and 30 percent is removed by some form of intervention . Relapse is very common . About half of those who suffered from kidney stones suffer again within ten years .

Stone in kidney

More than 80 percent of all stones in the kidney treated with stötvågsteknik . The method is called ESWL , extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy , and requires that the stones are crushed using a blaster . What remains of the stone leaves the body as gravel when you urinate .

Larger stones can be picked out using a tube that is inserted through the skin into the kidney . The method is called percutaneous stenextraktion and can also be combined with ESWL .

Large kidney stones , so -called coral stones , in very rare cases require open surgery .

Stone in ureter

Stones in the ureter can be removed with stötvågsbehandling well as so -called uretäroskopi . Uretäroskopi means that an instrument is inserted through the urethra . The stones can then be decomposed and removed .

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Renal Pelvic inflammatory disease

Saturday, July 31st, 2010

Renal Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection caused by bacteria that affects the kidney . The infection is more serious than the more common lower urinary tract infection because the bacteria do not remain in the bladder but spreads to the kidneys and sometimes the blood . In adults, the state gives typical symptoms as trouble urinating , high fever and pains in the back or along the sides . Quick Search care if you suspect renal pelvis inflammation .

Renal pelvic inflammatory infection usually begins in the bladder , but the bacteria do not stop there but spread to one or both kidneys and can then also reach the blood. This is a much more serious disease than cystitis. Cystitis affects only the bladder and is therefore called the lower urinary tract infection .

The disease is often painful and without treatment can lead to your kidneys are damaged or you may hypertension.

Symptoms of renal pelvis inflammation

The symptoms may be prominent , but is sometimes less obvious , especially in young children and very old . In typical cases, onset begins as a cystitis Having difficulty to urinate , then you often high fever , chills , a feeling of being really sick and have pain or soreness in the back or along the sides .

In young children, fever may be the only symptom . In elderly people the infection can prove to a deteriorated general condition, or with confusion .
Preventing renal pelvis inflammation

If you’re prone to urinary tract infection may reduce the risk of recurrence if you drink a lot and urinating frequently . It is important that your bladder is emptied completely , otherwise it increases the risk of infection .

Women should wash the genital area with movements from the urethra and back so that no bacteria in the field out there.

Do you often have trouble with urinary tract infection , you may want to make a supplementary investigation . Contact your GP and listen .

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