Allergy (Hypersensitivity)

Allergy and other hypersensitivity means that the body reacts to substances that we humans normally tolerate. Disorders due to hypersensitivity, you often in the eyes, nose, airways, gastrointestinal and skin. There is much you can do yourself to reduce symptoms. Contact care if you have difficulty breathing or if you have symptoms that do not go over.

Allergy and hypersensitivity

Allergy is included in the concept of hypersensitivity. The term stands for many different reactions that you may have of substances and environmental factors that we would normally tolerate. Hypersensitivity can be divided into allergic and non-allergic hypersensitivity. Here we report on allergic sensitization.

Allergic hypersensitivity is caused by immunological mechanisms. The immune system normally has a duty to protect the body against bacteria, viruses and parasites. Allergic sensitization can often confirm with various allergy tests.

If you have a hereditary tendency, known as atopy, you have an increased risk of developing allergies.

The most common allergies

Here are some of the most common allergies:

  • Rhinitis
  • Food allergy (food allergy)
  • Fur Allergy
  • Mites Allergy
  • Contact allergy with eczema
  • Bee and wasp sting allergy

You can read more about each allergy by clicking on links on the right.

Allergic reaction

When an allergy the first time in contact with such allergens, allergens, can start a reaction in the body that trigger allergic symptoms. You can be allergic to one or more allergens such as pollen, dust mites and animals.

The first time the body is exposed to an allergen production of antibodies that stick to a certain type of cells, mast cells. Next time you breathe in the allergen attaches to the antibodies on the mast cells. Mast cells are inter alia in the skin and in airway mucosa.

Mast cells then release from, among other things histamine affecting recipients, receptors in the mucous membranes and you have an allergic reaction. The mucous membranes of the nose and swollen eyes and itchy skin. Mucus production increases and you are sneezy. Airways swells, muscles to constrict and mucus glands produce, which makes you cough and, at worst, suffer shortness of breath, asthma.

Cross Reactions

Those who are allergic can have so-called cross-reactions and react to different foods. Cross-reaction is due to certain substances similar to the substance you are allergic to. It is not all that may cross-reactions and you do not respond to all subjects on the charts. Do you suffer from any one source of nourishment, you can continue to eat it.

Common cross-allergy is mainly itching in the mouth of the following foods:

  • Allergy to birch pollen may cause cross-reactions of apricot, hazelnut, kiwi, cherries, almonds, carrots, peaches, plums, potatoes, pears, celery, apple.
  • Allergy to mugwort may cause reactions if you eat anise, curry, fennel, chamomile, coriander, cumin, sage, carrots, peppers, parsley, celery, mustard, sunflower seeds, garlic.
  • Allergy to latex (rubber) may cause reactions if you eat avocado, banana, peanut, chestnut, kiwi, cherries, nectarines, plums.


Allergic symptoms, you get in your eyes, nose, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and skin. The most common allergy affecting the airway.

Common allergic symptoms:

  • Lower respiratory: asthma with attacks of breathlessness, cough and wheezing
  • The nose: sneezing, itching, nasal congestion and runny nose
  • Eyes: itching and redness
  • Skin: hives, swelling, redness, blistering, peeling, cracking and dermatitis

Non-allergic symptoms

The signs of non-allergic näsbesvär is roughly the same. Such problems can you get to irritants and temperature changes, or if you have a cold.


If you are allergic, it is important that you learn to live with your allergy to feel as good as possible. There is much you can do yourself to reduce the symptoms:

  • In pollen allergy, it is good to follow pollen reports in newspapers and on radio. During the summer months there is also pollen report on Care Guide website. Read more in the article on pollen allergy, see the link to the upper right.
  • Close windows and take preventive medication when pollenhalterna is high.
  • Do not use clothing or jewelry that you may contact dermatitis of. Are you allergic to preservatives and fragrances, there are special allergy-free hygiene and cleaning products to buy.
  • Avoid foods you are allergic to.
  • Stop smoking. Smoking impairs respiratory symptoms. Aids to quit smoking is a prescription at the pharmacy. In many clinics are smoking cessation courses.

Find Care

Hospital emergency rooms

The rapidly emerging difficulties in breathing, you should seek immediate emergency medical treatment.

Medical Center

Contact your GP if you experience:

  • respiratory symptoms as wheezing, wheezing or persistent cough without a cold
  • skin irritation that does not disappear
  • itching and / or watery eyes
  • runny nose, sneezing, the stuffy nose without a cold
  • long-standing problems with nausea, loose stools and stomach-ache
  • If you have questions about allergies and intolerances

The address and telephone number of a kind reception, go to Find Health Care. You can also contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts.


The first step in an allergy study is that the physician carefully identify the disease history. It is important to investigate what caused the symptoms to alleviate and prevent them.

To find out if you have an allergy can be a simple skin test, known as skin tests. When the test dot dropped some of the most common allergenic substances in the lower inner arm. A blunt needle is pushed gently through the straw so that the allergen entering the skin. If you are allergic to the subject area is a bit red and swollen.

One can also take blood tests to check for allergy antibodies in the blood. The respiratory problems are examined lung function by spirometry study. Read more in the article on spirometry study.


The goal of treatment is that you can live as normal a life as possible without having to limit your daily life. Treatment usually consists of both medication and environmental improvement measures. At such fur allergy, it is important that, wherever possible, reduce contact with the fur. The mite allergy can be a so-called protection of mite mattress and pillow might be an option.


There are many good medicines. They can be divided into two groups: prevention and mitigation. There are medicines for different types of hypersensitivity, such as in allergic rhinitis or allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva.


When our immune system encounters foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, it forms antibodies to these substances. Immunoglobulin antibody is the active component in blood plasma.

Primary immunodeficiency

Some people have a defect in their immune system which means that their antibody production completely or partially absent (PID). This means that they become highly susceptible to bacterial infections in particular and also find it hard to combat the infections they suffer. They may be lengthy and repeated infections, pneumonia. Eventually, the chronic damage in the airways and lungs.

The regular administration of immunoglobulin, their resistance to infection significantly improved and the risk of chronic injuries avoided.

Immune Modulation

Some diseases are caused in whole or in part by immunological mechanisms. In some individuals an imbalance in the immune system, for example, which can lead to increased risk of bleeding (eg, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, ITP).

An imbalance in the immune system can also cause specific diseases that cause inflammation in the body’s nerves and organs
(Eg Guillain-Barre Syndrome).

These diseases are called with a common concept and autoimmune diseases involving the immune system mistakenly perceives the body’s own tissues (eg neurons) as foreign and therefore attacks and destroys them.

It is not yet entirely clear how the flow of immunoglobulins in these cases affects the mistaken immune response. Probably, however, several mechanisms that work together to neutralize and regulate the faulty immune system and thereby restoring the immunological balance. This type of treatment known as immune modulation.


Rh-negative – what is it?
On the red blood cells are a variety of topics attached. Some of these are those underlying the division into different blood group systems, the most famous is the AB0 system, rhesus (Rh) system.

Rh system most significant factor is called the Rh factor, or D-factor (hence the name anti-D immunoglobulin). Approximately 85% of the Swedish population has this element and are called Rh-positive (Rh +) while 15% lack this and are called Rh negative (Rh-).

If an Rh-negative woman is pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus (which can happen if the husband is Rh-positive) may be Rh-factor on fetal blood cells stimulate the woman’s immune system to produce antibodies which are directed against the Rh factor. The pregnant woman can then be Rh immunized. This is done primarily at the end of pregnancy and during labor. By adding anti-D immunoglobulin to Rh-negative woman immediately after birth can prevent immunization.

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