Posts Tagged ‘aids’

Discovery of a mechanism that enhances the natural immunity against HIV

Saturday, May 8th, 2010

A team of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Institute Ragon Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard University have discovered that a particular gene found in people naturally immune to HIV-HLA-B57 causes the body to make a greater number of more lethal cells of the immune system attacking the virus and defend the body from infection.

The finding, published in the online edition of “Nature” and directed by Professors Arup Chakraborty (MIT) and Bruce Walker (MGH), could help researchers develop vaccines that provoke the same response to the HIV virus that that individuals with this particular gene generated by themselves. When people are HIV infected, it is normal to be only a matter of time, unless prevented by drugs, your body develops AIDS. However, there is a small group of people exposed to this virus, very slowly developing disease and, in some cases does not even develop it. The researchers demonstrated in the late 90s that a high percentage of people who showed naturally immune to HIV, representing one in every 200 individuals, were carriers of a gene called HLA B57.

The new research has found that the HLA B57 gene causes the body to build more T-cells white blood cells that help defend the body against infections, more powerful and lethal. Patients with this gene have an increased number of T cells that adhere more strongly to most proteins of HIV than people who lack this gene. This makes the T cells are better able to recognize cells expressing HIV proteins, including mutated versions that arise during infection. This effect helps these individuals have a better control of HIV infection and other viruses that develop quickly, “but also makes these patients more susceptible to autoimmune diseases in which T cells attack body’s own cells.

Most T cells are lethal only from a genetic point of view and recognize different pieces of foreign proteins, called epitopes, attached to the surface of cells that have been infected by viruses or bacteria. After a killer T cell is hooked to one of these proteins, is activated and begins to sweep the other body cells that express the same type of protein, to exterminate them. In addition, cloned themselves to create an army of T cells whose purpose is to attack the invader.

This work has shown that individuals with HLA B57 gene produce a greater number of T cells that are cross reactive, which means they can attack more than one epitope associated with HIV, including mutations that appear to escape activated T cells. Their findings could help researchers design a vaccine that helps to generate T cells able to have cross-reactions in people who lack a gene called HLA B57.

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A vaginal gel against AIDS

Thursday, April 29th, 2010

Researchers at Tulane University (USA) led by Ronald Veazey have used a protein substance (T-1249) on monkeys in order to assess the impact on a vaginal infection.
This protection would protect the three variations of AIDS.

The mechanism appears to be the inhibition of receiving site of viruses from the surface of immune cells. This receptor is common with many variations of the virus.

According to the production cost of the freeze, it could be an effective method of protection against HIV infection of women during sex.

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Hiv/aids and it’s Symptoms,prevention,Treatment

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

HIV damages the immune system. Early signs can include fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, ulceration of the mucous membranes and skin rash. For most it will take several years before the disease shows. The virus does not infect the hugs, kisses and the usual social contacts. Condoms are very safe for protection during sex. Search care if you think HIV / AIDS.

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is a virus that harms the body’s immune system.

HIV is spread in an ongoing worldwide epidemic. Situation is most serious in many developing countries, but also developed countries are affected. In the current situation greatly increases the spread in Eastern Europe, Russia and central Asia.

The disease is fatal if not treated.

HIV infection does not heal spontaneously without the infected person carries the virus for life. An HIV-infected individual’s infectivity decreases if the treatment is very successful.
Symptoms of HIV

It is common that at the beginning did not notice that you have been infected by HIV. Usually it takes many years before any signs appear. You can have different and varying symptoms, such as:

* periods of fever
* weight loss
* various skin rashes
* fungi in the mouth.

A few people have the infection, transient symptoms that vary.

The damage to the immune system usually develops slowly. After five to ten years of infection, the immune system can no longer protect the body against various bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. If a person has an HIV infection is already in treatment when the immune system is weakened a bit. The treatment makes the immune deficiency never develop, therefore, incurred no symptoms or diseases.

Today, more than half of patients diagnosed with HIV in Sweden is already greatly weakened immune system. This means that they have an increased risk for severe symptoms and a higher risk of dying. Most of these patients has led to the infection for many years.

The infection can easily be determined by a blood test, whether you feel sick or not.
HIV prevention

You protect yourself from HIV by avoiding contact with the virus through blood, semen and vaginal secretions. Condom during intercourse is a very good protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. To have “safe sex” is also a good way to protect themselves.

There is no vaccine against the disease. Some vaccines are also not in sight.

Blood donors are tested for HIV. It does not spread the infection through blood transfusion.

Pregnant women offered HIV test. If a pregnant woman found to have HIV to prevent infection by the child that the woman may hivbehandling, the birth is by caesarean section and that the child may hivläkemedel after birth. See also the link HIV in pregnant women.

People who put on the wound, or otherwise may come into contact with blood, to use plastic gloves or equivalent. If blood, semen, vaginal secretions or other body fluids from an HIV-positive person comes to skin wounds, mucous membranes or eyes that will be washed or rinsed off as soon as possible. Hivkunnig doctor should be contacted immediately. The doctor will then decide whether hivläkemedel will be provided, so-called postexpositions prophylaxis.
Contagion

Virus is transmitted mostly through sexual intercourse and through blood. It may, for example by blood transfusion, needle stick injuries when or if several people use the same syringe.

An HIV-positive woman can infect her baby during childbirth and breastfeeding if she is not successfully treated.

A successful treatment is when there is detectable virus in their blood. The risk of HIV spreading further significant reduction in successful treatment. These people, however, according to the Communicable Diseases Act is still seen as potentially infectious.

The virus does not infect the social interactions and HIV-infected persons need not be afraid to infect friends, relatives or children in their surroundings.
Find Care

If you suspect that you have HIV infection, it is very important to make a blood test. You can do this free of charge at various clinics:

* health center
* infectious disease clinic at Karolinska University Hospital
* clinic
* hospital sex and cohabitation Entertainment (SESAME)
* skin and venmottagning
* RFSU reception
* Venhälsan at Söder Hospital.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you will find the links or Find Health Care. You can also contact some receptions and order a time via e-Care Guide Service My health care contacts.

You are currently testing the right to remain anonymous, that is, you do not have to reveal your identity. The answer comes in about a week after sampling. No signal can refuse to test you and you do not need to explain why you want to test you.

To get a definite answer on the blood test should have been three months of the suspected infection. It is for that HIV infection sometimes can not be seen in the blood until three months after infection, although infection can be seen in the vast majority of two to three weeks.

At some clinics, such as Sesame, Venhälsan and infection clinic at Karolinska University Hospital, can test themselves with the quick reply. It means that the test result is usually ready after an hour. But it must still be passed three months after infection before HIV can be excluded with certainty.
Treatment of HIV
Pharmaceuticals

There is currently no treatment that cures the infection and remove the virus from the body. However, there are effective drugs that reduce the amount of virus and slow down the disease. They are called anti-retroviral drugs. Most of time reading to the immune system recovers completely. Most people who get treatment may continue with their work and lead a normal life.

It now feels that the medication against HIV must be life long.

Earlier gave retroviral drugs side effects. Today, side effects are largely reduced. The treatment has also become easier, many need only take one or a few tablets. The medication must be managed carefully to avoid the virus to become resistant to medicines.

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