Posts Tagged ‘breast cancer’

The rate is improved survival of patients with breast cancer?

Monday, May 3rd, 2010

There is a new study showing that the survival rate of women with recurrent breast cancer has been improving in the last two decades, but also cautions that more studies are needed.

Sharon H. Giordano, MDLa lead author and assistant professor in the Department of Breast Medical Oncology at M. D Anderson answered several questions hacerca of this study.

What was the goal of this destudio?

The goal of this study was to determine whether the survival rate in patients with recurrent breast cancer had improved (the recurrent cancer is cancer that returns after his initial diagnosis).

As obtained that information?

The researchers analyzed data from 834 patients of M. D Anderson who had had recurrent cancer developed between th December 1974 and November 2000.

The major objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the year in which recurrence was detected and subsequent survive. Patients were divided into five groups basing on the year in which occurred recurrence, and survival was compared between these five groups.

They found?

Although our findings are suggestive and not conclusive, our data suggest that the prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer has improved from 1974 to 2000.

Our analysis shows that there is a significant improvement in survival rates over the five groups, in more recent patients who live more noticeable after diagnosis of recurrence.

The following are the survival rates were diagnosticaos patients with recurrent breast cancer and specific period:

* 10% for 1974-1979 patients
* 14% for 1980-1984 patients
* 22% for 1985-1989 patients
* 29% for 1990-1994 patients
* 44% for 1995-2000 patients

The more recent the recurrence group had better prognostic variables, and a longer life span, this is due in part to advances in drugs and treatments. The most favorable variables include:

* A smaller size of the tumor
• A lower level of disease status
* Less involved lymph nodes
* Disease-free interval longer
* Tumors with positive estroneno receptors (these are tumors that use estrogen to grow).
* Tumors that do not involve major organs

It is estimated that there has been a risk reduction of 1% to 2% for each year it increases, although the change was not statistically highly significant. This statistic is consistent with data Seet (database of the results found by the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemilogy and End Results)

That current statistics indicate breast cancer?

In 2004, approximately 217.440 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in the United States, and 40.580 women are expected to die due to metastasis, this according to the American Cancer Society.

How conclusive are the results?

Due to the inherent difficulties faced in determining changes in survival time, we urge that these results are interpreted cautiously.

Although the strength of this study includes a large patient poblacin is needed extensive follow up (mean 9.3 years) and uniform initial stages follow-up tests, the study is limited to the problems inherited in elanalisis of survival data time.

For example, improvements in radiographic techniques and more precise imaging techniques may change the distribution of the phases. Small metastases that may have been detected with modern imaging techniques 90 could have passed without notice in the ’70s. Thus some patients were diagnosed at 70 could have been bad clasificdos saying Dela had early disease. This would result in apparent poorer prognosis of the patient group in 1970.

In addition, improvements in radiographic imaging could have resulted in more diagnoses of recurrent disease temprenaos. This could give a misleading appearance of improved survival.

What could be responsible for increasing survival?

There has been a marked increase through time on the number of drugs available to treat cancer. One of the largest increases took place in the decade of the 90s with drugs such as taxanes, vinorelbine, capecitabine, Herceptin, aromatase inhibitors and pamidronate.

Therapeutic advances have also been having an impact on the survival rate among women with breast cancer. For example, two began in the early tests involving 70 adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy before surgery) these treatments were shown to have adjuvant chemotherapy buenosresultados as to the time improvement and disease-free survival.

As this study will help future research?

Regardless of progress, the improvements in survival rates in patients with recurrent breast cancer or metastatic have been difficult to establish.

The mortality of breast cancer has been in decline. From 1995-1999, rates of breast cancer have declined about 3.2% a year. But still remains not clear whether eldescenso of deaths from cancer are due to a higher proportion of patients diagnosed with early stages of the disease or improvement in treatment.

With these data, we urge them to become more recurdos to clarify whether advances in therapy have led the desupervivencia improvements in the rate of recurrent breast cancer women.

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Olive oil to prevent breast cancer

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

Breast cancer affects between 20% and 25% of Spanish women. But thanks to medical advances and public awareness about the importance of early diagnosis, Spain is one of the European countries with a lower incidence of breast cancer. One of the cornerstones of research in this field is prevention. An initiative that brings together biologists, oncologists and the Inter-Organization of Spanish Olive Oil combines efforts and has launched a project of clinical trials on the effect of virgin olive oil in the prevention of this cancer. It tries to demonstrate, within five years, that a moderate intake of olive oil can slow the progression of the tumor.

Preventing food

The action of mechanisms that counteract the harmful role of fat would be key to confirm that olive oil is an ideal food for the prevention and the fight against breast cancer. From previous research, the Multidisciplinary Group for the Study of Breast Cancer (GMECM) analyze the influence of normal components of human nutrition in cancer progression and make scientific views regarding the health of the population or the risk of this disease. In addition, it will detect the molecular changes that repeated use olive oil results in the human genome and, in particular genes involved in breast cancer. The researchers caution that excessive consumption of seed oil extracted can be harmful, but tests conducted in vitro and experimental studies with human cell lines to confirm all these points.
The HER2
As a precedent to this impulse in the investigation of olive oil, a study of the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) envisioned two years ago that between 20% and 30% of breast cancers that express HER2 molecule are sensitive to effect of this type of oil. The work, led by Javier A. Menendez, speculated on the possibility that the Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, reduced the risk of breast cancer. Menendez theory, then much discussed, was that the active compounds of olive oil only affect certain types of tumors.

It is known that one of the drugs tested against breast cancer, Herceptin, HER2 acts on the molecules of tumor cells, which are responsible for cell growth. ICO researchers thought then that olive oil may also act on this molecule. After isolating several compounds olive oil extra virgin found two types that inactivate HER2 in tumor cells. This oil, being pressed without heat, it keeps most of the compounds from olives that are lost in the olive oil processing.

The researchers confirmed that in animals with carcinoma tumors became less evil by eating large amounts of extra virgin olive oil. However, Menendez says that “this does not mean that the intake of extra virgin olive oil prevents or treatment of breast cancer as those compounds, when ingested, do not always act the same way.”

Preventing food-

The action of mechanisms that counteract the harmful role of fat would be key to confirm that olive oil is an ideal food for the prevention and the fight against breast cancer. From previous research, the Multidisciplinary Group for the Study of Breast Cancer (GMECM) analyze the influence of normal components of human nutrition in cancer progression and make scientific views regarding the health of the population or the risk of this disease. In addition, it will detect the molecular changes that repeated use olive oil results in the human genome and, in particular genes involved in breast cancer. The researchers caution that excessive consumption of seed oil extracted can be harmful, but tests conducted in vitro and experimental studies with human cell lines to confirm all these points.

The HER2

As a precedent to this impulse in the investigation of olive oil, a study of the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) envisioned two years ago that between 20% and 30% of breast cancers that express HER2 molecule are sensitive to effect of this type of oil. The work, led by Javier A. Menendez, speculated on the possibility that the Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, reduced the risk of breast cancer. Menendez theory, then much discussed, was that the active compounds of olive oil only affect certain types of tumors.

A Mediterranean diet has significant protective effects against cancer, heart disease and aging

It is known that one of the drugs tested against breast cancer, Herceptin, HER2 acts on the molecules of tumor cells, which are responsible for cell growth. ICO researchers thought then that olive oil may also act on this molecule. After isolating several compounds olive oil extra virgin found two types that inactivate HER2 in tumor cells. This oil, being pressed without heat, it keeps most of the compounds from olives that are lost in the olive oil processing.

The researchers confirmed that in animals with carcinoma tumors became less evil by eating large amounts of extra virgin olive oil. However, Menendez says that “this does not mean that the intake of extra virgin olive oil prevents or treatment of breast cancer as those compounds, when ingested, do not always act the same way.”
Increases survival rate
Although the survival rate of sick people has increased in recent years, breast cancer is the most common tumor among Spanish women. Latest figures show that in our country some 16,000 cases are diagnosed annually, representing 24.6% of all tumors that afflict women. It is the leading cause of death and the most common malignant tumor in the world after lung cancer. Most of these cases are diagnosed mainly between 45 and 65.

Nevertheless, the number of cases is slowly increasing thanks to the progressive aging population and early diagnosis, While the success of treatments has allowed the number of deaths from this cause falls.

BACKGROUND oleic acid

Scientists in Chicago (USA) were the first to propose that a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil could reduce the risk of breast cancer. The key ingredient of olive oil, the oleic acidAppeared as the main suspect. Laboratory experiments on breast cancer cells made at the Northwestern University allowed these researchers show that oleic acid does reduce dramatically the levels of a gene linked to the disease.

In the journal “Annals of Oncology” stated that the study carried out was interesting, but cautioned that more research needed. Scientists in Chicago have confirmed that oleic acid reduces the levels of Her-2/neu gene, present in more than a fifth of patients with breast cancer and is associated with highly aggressive tumors. But not only did oleic acid suppress activity of the gene, but also boosted the effectiveness of a new drug used against breast cancer (Herceptin).

From the ICO, Javier A. Menendez tried these studies in key positive “findings underpin epidemiological studies that show that the Mediterranean diet has significant protective effects against cancer as well against coronary disease and aging. “However, Tim Key, deputy director of the epidemiology unit of Cancer Research UK (Oxford, UK), maintained that the only risk factors established for this cancer are obesity and alcohol, and the data showed no direct evidence that olive oil reduces the risk of breast cancer.

Following the results of the work of Menendez, Key said: “This new study shows interesting effects of olive oil on cancer cells under laboratory conditions, but calls for more studies to prove” if it is of some importance in cancer breast cancer in particular. ” The newly created GMECM intends to reveal these unknowns.

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Breast cancer

Monday, April 26th, 2010

Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Sweden and the number is constantly growing. One lump or lump in or around the breast is the most common sign of cancer. Early detection increases the possibility of curing the disease. Surgery combined with radiotherapy is a method for treating breast cancer.

Breast cancer usually begins with a tumor that develops in one breast. It may seem like a tuber. Certain types of breast cancer may spread and form metastases, ie metastases, in other parts of the body.

Many women with breast cancer will be healthy.

The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. The disease is uncommon before age 40. Breast cancer can be hereditary, but in most cases is not known why.

Breast cancer is also available in men, the most affected is 60-70 years of age or older. Male breast cancer is very rare and represent less than one percent of breast cancers.

Two types of breast cancer

There are two types of breast cancer:

Carcinoma

Cancer tumors occur most often in the mammary gland and passageways in the interior, dairy section. Cancer that occurs in those parts of the breast are called carcinomas. Carcinoma may gradually spread to other parts of the body. This is the most common form of breast cancer.

Sarcoma

Another type of breast cancer is sarcoma, which arises in the breast’s connective tissue. It can spread via the bloodstream to the body’s other organs. One percent of breast cancer cases are sarcomas, carcinomas are the rest.

Symptoms

The most common sign of breast cancer is the formation of a bump or lump in or around the breast, for example, in the armpit. Changes in breast shape and appearance, or a withdrawal of the skin of the breast in a limited area can also occur. The nipple can be drawn inwards or otherwise altered. Bloody discharge from the nipple may also be an early symptom.

Many breast cancer cases are detected in a mammography examination. Regular examinations can detect breast cancer at an early stage.

Prevention

The possibility of curing breast cancer is greater the earlier the diagnosis is made. It is therefore very important that you each month examines your breasts for lumps, nodules or other changes. The best way to examine your breasts is to lather them with circular movements gently feel through the glandular tissue with your fingers. It is easiest to find any changes if you stretch the arm on the side you are examining.

By examining your breasts regularly to learn all about them and can easily detect any changes.

Investigation

To see if you have breast cancer are multiple investigations, including mammography and examination of cell samples from the tumor. If a nodule or lump is detected at mammography sometimes tissue samples taken by puncture with a needle.

The doctor needs to know what kind of tumor it is, how big it is and how it grows to be able to choose treatment. A tissue sample (biopsy) is taken from the tumor to find out what type of tumor they are. In the treatment of breast cancer is always sample from the lymph nodes in the armpit. When tumor cells spread to these lymph nodes affects the choice of treatment.

Treatment

In breast cancer surgery often only the part of the breast where the tumor is. This method is used if the tumor is not larger than 3-4 centimeters in diameter. The procedure is usually combined with radiotherapy for the portion of the breast that remains.

The entire breast surgically removed if the tumor is too large or if there are tumors in several places in the chest. If the tumor in the breast is large or if the tumor cells spread to the lymph nodes are often given chemotherapy (chemo) for three to four months before surgery is done.

Sometimes breast surgery even if it is a benign tumor. When a minor surgery done locally in my chest – it does not remove the entire breast. To be surgically removed a benign lump may be due to mammograms and cell samples are not completely safe demonstrated that cells of the tuber is healthy. When operating in order to be on the safe side. It also happens to be surgically removed benign nodules of the type that over time tend to grow larger, to avoid future uncertainty and new samples. A third reason to remove a benign lump, the patient is restless and myself wish to remove it.

All women who undergo breast surgery in which the entire breast is removed the opportunity to select an external prosthesis or a new breast surgically. There are several different methods to reconstruct the breast, which can sometimes be directly related to the first operation. Breast surgeon work together when a plastic surgeon for the bypass.

Previously, approximately one in ten women who had surgery for breast cancer after surgery so called lymphedema in the operated side arm. In lymphedema, it is important that treatment is provided with compression and massage by specially trained physical therapist. In this way, the symptoms of swelling usually be contained in an effective manner.

With the surgical techniques currently used are only one or two lymph node from his armpit. If the gland is healthy in the armpit surgery becomes so small that the risk of lymphedema is insignificant. If the lymph node analysis however found to be affected by cancer is surgery in the armpit of the same type as before, that is, removing a greater number of lymph nodes.

Aftercare

After surgery or radiation often requires medical treatment with chemotherapy (chemo), antibodies or hormonal drug to reduce the risk that the tumor will come back. Often a combination of several different kinds of treatment. The risk of relapse is greatest during the first few years. After surgery and any other treatment is recommended, therefore, women who have had breast cancer to conduct regular medical examinations and mammograms.

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Discovered a substance in breast milk kills cancer cells

Wednesday, April 21st, 2010

A group of researchers from the University of Lund and Gothenburg University in Sweden has discovered that a substance found in milk can destroy cancer cells, as enshrined in the journal PLoS ONE. ” The discovery was made while scientists were studying the antibacterial properties of breast milk. This very special substance, known as “Hamlet” (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tomour cells), was discovered in breast milk for several years, but so far has not been possible to test its effectiveness in humans. This study showed that patients with bladder cancer who were treated with the substance killed the cancer cells removed through the urine after each treatment, so there is hope that they will become a medicine for cancer treatment in the future. “Hamlet” is composed of a protein and a fatty acid found naturally in breast milk, although not yet known whether the substance is formed naturally in the milk or may be formed in the acidic environment of the stomach babies. Moreover, Hamlet kills only cancer cells and does not affect healthy cells. Laboratory experiments have shown that this substance kills 40 different types of cancer. The researchers will now study its effect on skin cancer, tumors in the mucous membranes and brain tumors. Breast milk out for other benefits already known. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), strengthens baby’s immune system and helps maintain good health throughout life, as were infants of adults who often have lower blood pressure, less cholesterol and lower rates of overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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The vitamins and calcium supplements may reduce breast cancer risk

Tuesday, April 20th, 2010

The risk of breast cancer would decrease with vitamins and calcium supplements. This is the main conclusion of a study at the School of Medicine Ponce de Puerto Rico, announced during the annual meeting of the American Cancer Society. “It’s not an immediate effect,” said Jaime Matta, head of the study, “however, we observed a long-term effect.”

The researcher said the findings suggest that calcium supplements act to increase DNA repair capacity, a complex biological process involving more than 200 proteins that, if altered, may lead to cancer development. “This process involves at least five separate mechanisms and is critical for maintaining genomic stability. When the DNA is not repaired, leads to the mutation that leads to cancer,” said Matta.

The study involved 268 women with breast cancer and 457 healthy controls. The older women were more likely to develop breast cancer, family history, were not breastfeed their children and had lower DNA repair capacity.

Vitamin supplements appear to reduce breast cancer risk by about 30% and calcium, 40%. After taking into account the level of DNA repair capacity, calcium supplements failed to protect. However, it maintained the link between vitamin supplements and reduced risk of breast cancer. “We’re not talking about megadoses of these vitamins and calcium supplements, so this is a way to reduce the risk,” he said Matta.

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