Posts Tagged ‘cancer’

Bladder cancer

Sunday, May 30th, 2010

Bladder cancer annually affects about 2000 people in Sweden, especially older men, and is the sixth most common cancer. Symptoms of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, the need to urinate more often than usual, it hurts when you pee and it hurts the pubic bone. In many affected tumor can be easily removed, but the patient must go on periodic inspections. In every third case, the tumor grows so deep that a more advanced treatment is required.

The number of new cases of bladder cancer is increasing steadily. Of those who fall ill is 75 percent women and the disease is most common in older people. There is a clear link between smoking and bladder cancer, but smoking is not the only cause. Studies have shown that certain chemicals in industry may increase the risk of disease in those exposed to them in their work environment.

Urinary tract mucosa is the same all the way from the renal pelvis, down through the ureters and into the bladder and urethra. Tumors can occur throughout the system, but it is most common with tumors of the urinary bladder. Next to the prostate cancer is bladder cancer the most common form of cancer of the urinary tract.


The most common and most important symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Other symptoms may be the need to urinate frequently, that it stings when urinating, or that it hurts the pubic bone. The symptoms are similar to those we have at a urinary tract infection.

Find Care

You should always contact your GP or hospital if:

  • you have blood in your urine – it is enough that you have seen blood in the urine once and for there to be reason to investigate the cause
  • you need to urinate more often than usual
  • it stings when you urinate and / or you have pain over the pubic bone.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you can find by clicking on the Find clinic care at the top of the page. You can also contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts on the right.


The bleeding from the urinary tract or if you otherwise suspect bladder cancer is a study, known as cystoscopy, in which the physician into an optical instrument through the urethra. The survey is supplemented with ultrasound and x-ray of the kidneys.


In more than half of the patients the tumor is no direct threat to health and can relatively easily be removed using cystoscopy, an instrument when introduced via the urethra. The procedure is performed in a hospital under general or epidural. Sometimes the patient may go home the same day, but normally you get to stay at least one day in hospital.

Since tumors often grow in depth is the prognosis good. However, they often recur, and therefore it is necessary with periodic inspections during the rest of their lives. The frequent recurrence is sometimes called a bladder wash with chemotherapy or TB vaccine, which activates the body’s own immune system locally in the bladder.

About a third of the tumors growing in depth into the bladder wall musculature or through the bladder wall. It increases the risk that the cancer will spread further to the lymph nodes and other organs. The tumors therefore requires much more advanced treatment. If the tumor is confined to the bladder and the patient is deemed capable of an operation is the entire bladder removed – to make a so-called cystectomy. In men the prostate gland is removed while in women, and sometimes the uterus and ovaries.

This is a procedure which has major implications for the surgery. Either the patient a new bladder constructed of bowel which allows one to urinate the usual way, or you get a colostomy – a bag on his stomach – put up with the catheter or discharged into a urinuppsamlande bandages placed on the abdomen. Virtually all men lose their erection ability after surgery.

If the tumor is very advanced and grow through or outside the bladder wall or when it has spread are given chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with surgery. Treatment may alleviate symptoms and prolong life for the patient but does not cure the disease except in exceptional cases. Radiation therapy does not occur so often, but sometimes used to relieve pain and reduce bleeding or when an operation can not be implemented.

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Ovarian Cancer

Sunday, May 30th, 2010

Ovarian cancer rarely gives some typical symptoms and is therefore difficult to detect. The cause is unclear but the number of ovulating seems to have significance. Ovarian tumors can be benign. Contact reception on gynecological abdomen increased in size, if you have newcomers vague abdominal discomfort or if you need to urinate frequently but that you have a urinary tract infection.

Ovarian cancer is most common among women 60-70 years old, but the spread is high and the disease also occurs in the young. In Sweden, the incidence of ovarian cancer declined and now affects about 800 women annually.

The cause of ovarian cancer is unclear. The number of ovulating during a woman’s lifetime is considered to have an effect. Women who had their first menstrual late or coming in early menopause, and women who have given birth to many children, have a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is an insidious process. The first signs that something is wrong may be more diffuse stomach and upset stomach in the form of nausea and pain. You may also need to urinate more often because the bladder is exposed to increased pressure. If instead the pressure is on the gut you may need to defecate more often than usual.

It is important to remember that even benign cysts can produce similar symptoms with a sense of weight in the abdomen and pain in the abdomen.

Because of the vague symptoms of ovarian cancer is often detected late. It is important to take symptoms seriously and to undergo a gynecological examination in unclear abdominal discomfort.

Ovarian cancer can spread to the other ovary, uterus, fallopian tubes, peritoneum of the pelvis and then on to other organs in the abdominal cavity. Cancer cells can also be via lymph and blood spread to other parts of the body.

Find Care

You should contact the clinic for gynecological examination if you feel the abdomen increased in size, the newly vague abdominal symptoms and the increased urine frequency without urinary tract infection.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you can find by clicking on Find Health Care at the top. Now is also possible to contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts.


In order to detect ovarian cancer is not due until a gynecological examination, supplemented by an ultrasound of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. In unclear cases, different types of radiological studies to be present.

If the suspicion of cancer remains after these studies, it will be up to date with an abdominal operation. Then the doctor takes pieces of tissue to determine if the tumor is benign or malignant.

Treatment for ovarian cancer

There are different types of tumors of the ovary. There are benign tumors, malignant tumors (ovarian cancer) but also a third group, known as borderline tumors.

It is unclear whether borderline tumors could ultimately develop into ovarian cancer or if there is a different disease. Borderline tumors are rarely malignant and have a good prognosis. Most cases of borderline tumors are treated only surgically. If the woman wishes to preserve its ability to bear children, it can sometimes be enough to only the affected ovary is removed.

Patients with suspected ovarian cancer should always be operated. The purpose of surgery is to ensure the diagnosis and to see if the cancer has spread. The operation takes, whether it is possible, including the ovaries and uterus removed.

After surgery usually require further treatment in the form of chemotherapy. This treatment is given kurvis for about half a year.


Women who have had their ovaries removed in menopause if they have not already passed that stage.

For some women, the loss of the uterus and ovaries, together with the knowledge that they can not bear children, a great sadness. Most, however, regaining a good quality of life.

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The head and neck cancer annually affects about 15,000 people

Saturday, May 22nd, 2010

Each year are diagnosed in Spain between 14,000 and 15,000 people with head and neck cancer. It is estimated that currently suffer from this disease some 37,000 Spanish, making our country in a region with higher incidence, as detailed Dr. Juan Jesús Cruz, head of the University Hospital of Salamanca and president of the Spanish Group Treatment of Head and Neck Tumors.

These tumors occur mainly in men, as nine out of ten cases, which explains “as a result of habits and social customs such as consumption of alcohol and snuff,” said Cruz. However, the doctor recalled that these are patients with a high prevalence of healing and survival, largely because treatments that have emerged in recent years.

The disease, which affects the salivary glands, lips, oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, particularly evident in the oral cavity (43%), followed by the pharynx (33%) and larynx ( 24%). In addition, because the symptoms are nonspecific, the disease may present untreated for a long time, which makes 80% of patients go to consultation with locally advanced disease. “They are tumors in which social relations are very committed, so it is key to developing new therapies that can avoid surgery and the high toxicity of radiotherapy, said Cruz.

They are mostly young patients, about 50, about drug abusers. “Most important are smokers and drinkers,” said Dr. Yolanda Escobar, an oncologist at the Hospital Gregorio Maranon de Madrid. It is important that the patient change their lifestyle habits for successful treatment, he said. “Unlike what patients think, one is not free of the disease by consuming alcohol ‘light’ as it could be beer or wine, because what is taken into account is the amount of ethanol consumed. They fought to snuff in terms of the amount you smoked per day, per year, the intensity of inhalation, and so on. “said the doctor.

Some early symptoms of these patients are in difficulty or discomfort when swallowing, prolonged hoarseness, sore face, throat and persistent nasal obstruction, hoarseness, or mouth sores. Those affected, which in general are people of low socioeconomic status, have a great ability to fit the diagnosis and treatment. Some applicants are not asking for information and treatment options, detailed Escobar. It is important to the multidisciplinary approach of the disease, which is normally involved the audiologist, surgeon, radiation oncologist and medical oncologist, who has to lead the monitoring of these patients, she explained. This tumor also requires a complex approach, as are common comorbidities, especially cardiovascular status, respiratory, liver, and can prevent the use of aggressive therapies, he added.

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A new method to diagnose bladder cancer urine sample

Tuesday, May 11th, 2010

A new method to diagnose bladder cancer in urine samples by the screening of 14 genes. Powered by Puigvert Foundation and the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, in the near future will allow non-invasive techniques adopted to reduce the number of cystoscopy, a test that involves the exploration of the bladder through the urethra.

Those responsible for the urology department of both schools explained that the change with respect to other methods is a “different approach” that involves the pursuit of a “gene pool” and not a single specific marker. The results of the new technique, after seven years of research and an investment of one million euros from the biotechnology firm Fina Biotech, were published n the journal Clinical Cancer Research.

The method, which is currently valid in five centers-the Puigvert Clinic and Foundation in Barcelona, the Virgen del Rocio Hospital in Seville and the urology departments of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands) and the Medical University of Vienna (Austria) – involves the collection of samples of one thousand patients. The process will be completed in September.

The application method will be effective “by 2013″, allowing a diagnosis of “no doubt” cheaper and with less inconvenience to patients, as currently required bladder cancer practice between 15 and 20 during cystoscopy five years, said the director of the Urology Clinic, Antonio Alcaraz. The service is responsible for it Puigvert Foundation, Antonio Villavicencio, explained that the bladder cancer becomes a “chronic disease”, since in half the cases once again on display, and that requires periodic review. That these reviews are not invasive, a urine test rather than introducing a camera through the urethra, will improve quality of life, he said.

The price of a cystoscopy is around 300 euros, while the new analysis does not exceed this amount according to current forecasts. Also expected to improve the diagnosis, through the possibility of advancing the same, especially the most aggressive tumors. Today, are diagnosed each year in Spain about 15,000 bladder cancers, of which about a third end in death. This is the seventh most common malignancy and the second most common genito-urinary tract, behind the prostate.

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Relationship between cancer and genetic disorders

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

Cancer is a disease with wide molecular basis, since tumor cells are characterized by numerous structural and functional changes with respect to normal cells. These variations are not necessarily the same for each tissue and tumor. Although most cancer processes follow a common pattern, there are particular genes associated with various tumors, some very frequent in the Spanish population, which give the wearer a small risk of developing cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All these characteristics make cancer a genetic study of complex and expensive process, but knowing these genes would help in the development of prevention programs and better treatment strategies and early diagnosis with a simple blood test.
Different tumors with similar genetic characteristics

Different tumors in different tissues and patients of different ages stand out repetitive patterns of genes in common. In DNA there are multiple copies of each gene, some of them only have two copies while many others have a large number scattered throughout the genome. The number of copies is one of the factors that determines the rate of synthesis of the proteins they encode. Thus, changes in the number of copies will affect the concentration of protein in the cell and thus modulate its function.

A major study conducted by scientists from USA, Japan, Canada and Spain has shown that various tumor types share very similar genetic characteristics. The work has been published in the journal “Nature” and it has involved scientists at the Hospital Vall d’Hebron and the Institut d’Oncologia Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona. For the investigation we have analyzed more than 3,000 tumor samples from 26 types of cancer. As explained by Josep Tabernero, an oncologist at the hospital, “we analyzed copies of the genes of somatic cells (which form the growth of tissues and organs of a living being, from embryonic stem cells) tumor and were compared with germ cells ( containing genetic material) from the same patient. ”

Abnormalities were detected in the number of regions in tumor cells, either due to lack or excess. The most interesting discovery is that the change in the number of copies is found in several tumors of different cancers to assume 75% of the changes common to all tumors and only 25% of tumor-specific alterations. In the study, 122 were also found new genomic regions likely to have a relationship with the tumoral process. However, the authors claim that only 25% know of the possible genes involved in cancer and still more research is needed.

The director of the Institut d’Oncologia Vall d’Hebron, Josep Baselga, in this respect that, “the end of the day, cancer is a disease of the genome. It breaks down and ends up developing a tumor.”

In the DNA is stored almost all the hereditary information of the organism, related to structural and functional characteristics, so that if you analyze and compare the genome of different cells, healthy and tumor, there are some common areas and other different between them. This allows determination of common genetic characteristics in tumor cells, not present in healthy cells, which help to identify common patterns related to the tumor process.
Genetic markers for breast and colon

The number of repetitions of specific regions in the genome is not the only implication of genetics in cancer, because there are specific genes associated with various tumors. One such group is known as low-penetrance genes that are common in the population and give the wearer a small risk of developing a certain disease. Not only are related to cancer disease, but can also facilitate the development of other diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular problems. However, it is a necessary interaction of more than one risk to be considered for a particular disease.

In relation to breast cancer, seven were known far penetrance genes. However, a recent study conducted by the International Consortium of Breast Cancer (BCAC) has unveiled two new genes involved. The BCAC is an international consortium involving 27 research groups for breast cancer. Among them, three Spanish organizations: the National Cancer Centre (CNIO), Hospital Universitario La Paz Hospital in Madrid and Oviedo Monte Naranco.

The study, published in the journal “Nature Genetics”, it concludes that these two new genes and are nine penetrance genes are associated with breast cancer. As the number of genes discovered, can be designed better therapies and diagnostic for prevention. It is estimated that they participate in a 6% in the genetic component of this tumor.

Similarly, another study by Spanish researchers, in collaboration with other countries, reveals new genetic markers that increase the risk of developing colon cancer. These new markers can be helpful in determining the risk of developing the disease in people with colon cancer runs in your family. José Augusto García Agundez, Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Extremadura and collaborator in the study, explains that the new genetic markers “allow the realization of early diagnosis of the disease in a routine and massive, with a simple blood test .

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Cancer and it’s Symptoms,Prevention

Monday, April 26th, 2010

Cancer is more common in older, but you can get cancer at any age. A cancer develops over time and can be treated by several different methods. There are about 200 different cancers. There is nothing we can do to completely exclude the risk of getting a cancer. Contact your GP if you suspect cancer.

Cancer affects many people in any way. Most of us know someone who has or had cancer. Every third person in Sweden are affected at some time during their lives from cancer.

The disease is about as common among men as among women, but men and women suffer from various forms of cancer. In Sweden, prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and among women, breast cancer is most common.

Cancer occurs more frequently among older people, but occurs in all ages. Cancer is very rare among children and adolescents. Only one percent of all cancers diagnosed in people under age 25 and an even smaller proportion of children younger than 15 years.

There are about 200 different cancers, each with varying degrees of severity. Thanks to increased knowledge, better treatment and better able to detect cancer at an early stage have the chance to fully cured has increased in recent decades. Some forms of cancer remains a high mortality. About 20 000 people a year die of a cancer in Sweden. This makes cancer the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases.


The human body consists of between 50 000 and 100 000 billion cells. Cells die and are replaced constantly by new cells. Cancer arises through changes in the genes that regulate cell growth and division. The cells start to divide uncontrollably and continue to proliferate without regard to surrounding healthy cells. Eventually form a tumor that can spread and form metastases, or metastases.

All tumors are not cancer, it is benign so-called benign tumors. Warts and fatty lumps are examples of benign, harmless tumors. Cancer means a malignant tumor known as malignant disease. Often together a variety of factors in a complicated way for a cancer to occur.

An inherited susceptibility combined with exposure to certain carcinogens may induce a cancer. Around ten percent of all cancers can be classified as hereditary. Studies show that cancer can also be caused by random changes in the genes. It is also well known that different risk factors, such as smoking, can contribute to causing cancer.

Symptoms of Cancer

A cancer develops over a long period, sometimes for years, and it is therefore common that it will be before it causes symptoms. It is important that the cancer is detected early, it increases the chances of curing the disease. Different cancers of various symptoms. Read more about each cancer of the links on the right or on general symptoms in healthcare Search below.


There is nothing we can do to completely exclude the risk of getting a cancer. We know that a healthy lifestyle with good diet and adequate physical activity makes us humans feel better and reduces the risk of many serious diseases, including cancer. Research agree to certain factors such as smoking, increases the risk of developing cancer.

By being attentive to their body’s signals can also increase the ability to detect cancer at an earlier stage, which is very important for treatment outcome.

Treatment for Cancer

You can treat cancer with several different methods. The treatment chosen depends on which organ is infected, how far advanced the disease, age and health of the sick. For example, treatment for leukemia in children, adults and older people are very different.

The most common treatments are surgery, radiotherapy, anti-hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are sometimes called chemotherapy or chemotherapy.

Advice and support

It is emotionally stressful to get a message about cancer. Often the fear of cancer can cause death the overwhelming, but you can also feel very concerned about pain and treatment. It is important to get help and psychological support in this situation, and it is an important part of treatment.

Do you already have contact with the care they will help you for the support you need. You can also contact a support organization. They can give you information and assist you to make contact with others in a similar situation.

Advice and support for family

If you are a family may also need support. There you can get from a support organization. They can give you information and help you make contact with others in a similar situation. If your relative has had contact with health care, you can also get support from the staff responsible for your relative’s care.

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Discovered a substance in breast milk kills cancer cells

Wednesday, April 21st, 2010

A group of researchers from the University of Lund and Gothenburg University in Sweden has discovered that a substance found in milk can destroy cancer cells, as enshrined in the journal PLoS ONE. ” The discovery was made while scientists were studying the antibacterial properties of breast milk. This very special substance, known as “Hamlet” (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tomour cells), was discovered in breast milk for several years, but so far has not been possible to test its effectiveness in humans. This study showed that patients with bladder cancer who were treated with the substance killed the cancer cells removed through the urine after each treatment, so there is hope that they will become a medicine for cancer treatment in the future. “Hamlet” is composed of a protein and a fatty acid found naturally in breast milk, although not yet known whether the substance is formed naturally in the milk or may be formed in the acidic environment of the stomach babies. Moreover, Hamlet kills only cancer cells and does not affect healthy cells. Laboratory experiments have shown that this substance kills 40 different types of cancer. The researchers will now study its effect on skin cancer, tumors in the mucous membranes and brain tumors. Breast milk out for other benefits already known. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), strengthens baby’s immune system and helps maintain good health throughout life, as were infants of adults who often have lower blood pressure, less cholesterol and lower rates of overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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