Posts Tagged ‘tumors’

Ovarian Cancer

Sunday, May 30th, 2010

Ovarian cancer rarely gives some typical symptoms and is therefore difficult to detect. The cause is unclear but the number of ovulating seems to have significance. Ovarian tumors can be benign. Contact reception on gynecological abdomen increased in size, if you have newcomers vague abdominal discomfort or if you need to urinate frequently but that you have a urinary tract infection.

Ovarian cancer is most common among women 60-70 years old, but the spread is high and the disease also occurs in the young. In Sweden, the incidence of ovarian cancer declined and now affects about 800 women annually.

The cause of ovarian cancer is unclear. The number of ovulating during a woman’s lifetime is considered to have an effect. Women who had their first menstrual late or coming in early menopause, and women who have given birth to many children, have a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is an insidious process. The first signs that something is wrong may be more diffuse stomach and upset stomach in the form of nausea and pain. You may also need to urinate more often because the bladder is exposed to increased pressure. If instead the pressure is on the gut you may need to defecate more often than usual.

It is important to remember that even benign cysts can produce similar symptoms with a sense of weight in the abdomen and pain in the abdomen.

Because of the vague symptoms of ovarian cancer is often detected late. It is important to take symptoms seriously and to undergo a gynecological examination in unclear abdominal discomfort.

Ovarian cancer can spread to the other ovary, uterus, fallopian tubes, peritoneum of the pelvis and then on to other organs in the abdominal cavity. Cancer cells can also be via lymph and blood spread to other parts of the body.

Find Care

You should contact the clinic for gynecological examination if you feel the abdomen increased in size, the newly vague abdominal symptoms and the increased urine frequency without urinary tract infection.

The address and telephone number of a kind reception you can find by clicking on Find Health Care at the top. Now is also possible to contact some receptions and order a time via the Internet. Click on My care contacts.


In order to detect ovarian cancer is not due until a gynecological examination, supplemented by an ultrasound of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. In unclear cases, different types of radiological studies to be present.

If the suspicion of cancer remains after these studies, it will be up to date with an abdominal operation. Then the doctor takes pieces of tissue to determine if the tumor is benign or malignant.

Treatment for ovarian cancer

There are different types of tumors of the ovary. There are benign tumors, malignant tumors (ovarian cancer) but also a third group, known as borderline tumors.

It is unclear whether borderline tumors could ultimately develop into ovarian cancer or if there is a different disease. Borderline tumors are rarely malignant and have a good prognosis. Most cases of borderline tumors are treated only surgically. If the woman wishes to preserve its ability to bear children, it can sometimes be enough to only the affected ovary is removed.

Patients with suspected ovarian cancer should always be operated. The purpose of surgery is to ensure the diagnosis and to see if the cancer has spread. The operation takes, whether it is possible, including the ovaries and uterus removed.

After surgery usually require further treatment in the form of chemotherapy. This treatment is given kurvis for about half a year.


Women who have had their ovaries removed in menopause if they have not already passed that stage.

For some women, the loss of the uterus and ovaries, together with the knowledge that they can not bear children, a great sadness. Most, however, regaining a good quality of life.

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The head and neck cancer annually affects about 15,000 people

Saturday, May 22nd, 2010

Each year are diagnosed in Spain between 14,000 and 15,000 people with head and neck cancer. It is estimated that currently suffer from this disease some 37,000 Spanish, making our country in a region with higher incidence, as detailed Dr. Juan Jesús Cruz, head of the University Hospital of Salamanca and president of the Spanish Group Treatment of Head and Neck Tumors.

These tumors occur mainly in men, as nine out of ten cases, which explains “as a result of habits and social customs such as consumption of alcohol and snuff,” said Cruz. However, the doctor recalled that these are patients with a high prevalence of healing and survival, largely because treatments that have emerged in recent years.

The disease, which affects the salivary glands, lips, oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, particularly evident in the oral cavity (43%), followed by the pharynx (33%) and larynx ( 24%). In addition, because the symptoms are nonspecific, the disease may present untreated for a long time, which makes 80% of patients go to consultation with locally advanced disease. “They are tumors in which social relations are very committed, so it is key to developing new therapies that can avoid surgery and the high toxicity of radiotherapy, said Cruz.

They are mostly young patients, about 50, about drug abusers. “Most important are smokers and drinkers,” said Dr. Yolanda Escobar, an oncologist at the Hospital Gregorio Maranon de Madrid. It is important that the patient change their lifestyle habits for successful treatment, he said. “Unlike what patients think, one is not free of the disease by consuming alcohol ‘light’ as it could be beer or wine, because what is taken into account is the amount of ethanol consumed. They fought to snuff in terms of the amount you smoked per day, per year, the intensity of inhalation, and so on. “said the doctor.

Some early symptoms of these patients are in difficulty or discomfort when swallowing, prolonged hoarseness, sore face, throat and persistent nasal obstruction, hoarseness, or mouth sores. Those affected, which in general are people of low socioeconomic status, have a great ability to fit the diagnosis and treatment. Some applicants are not asking for information and treatment options, detailed Escobar. It is important to the multidisciplinary approach of the disease, which is normally involved the audiologist, surgeon, radiation oncologist and medical oncologist, who has to lead the monitoring of these patients, she explained. This tumor also requires a complex approach, as are common comorbidities, especially cardiovascular status, respiratory, liver, and can prevent the use of aggressive therapies, he added.

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Relationship between cancer and genetic disorders

Tuesday, April 27th, 2010

Cancer is a disease with wide molecular basis, since tumor cells are characterized by numerous structural and functional changes with respect to normal cells. These variations are not necessarily the same for each tissue and tumor. Although most cancer processes follow a common pattern, there are particular genes associated with various tumors, some very frequent in the Spanish population, which give the wearer a small risk of developing cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All these characteristics make cancer a genetic study of complex and expensive process, but knowing these genes would help in the development of prevention programs and better treatment strategies and early diagnosis with a simple blood test.
Different tumors with similar genetic characteristics

Different tumors in different tissues and patients of different ages stand out repetitive patterns of genes in common. In DNA there are multiple copies of each gene, some of them only have two copies while many others have a large number scattered throughout the genome. The number of copies is one of the factors that determines the rate of synthesis of the proteins they encode. Thus, changes in the number of copies will affect the concentration of protein in the cell and thus modulate its function.

A major study conducted by scientists from USA, Japan, Canada and Spain has shown that various tumor types share very similar genetic characteristics. The work has been published in the journal “Nature” and it has involved scientists at the Hospital Vall d’Hebron and the Institut d’Oncologia Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona. For the investigation we have analyzed more than 3,000 tumor samples from 26 types of cancer. As explained by Josep Tabernero, an oncologist at the hospital, “we analyzed copies of the genes of somatic cells (which form the growth of tissues and organs of a living being, from embryonic stem cells) tumor and were compared with germ cells ( containing genetic material) from the same patient. ”

Abnormalities were detected in the number of regions in tumor cells, either due to lack or excess. The most interesting discovery is that the change in the number of copies is found in several tumors of different cancers to assume 75% of the changes common to all tumors and only 25% of tumor-specific alterations. In the study, 122 were also found new genomic regions likely to have a relationship with the tumoral process. However, the authors claim that only 25% know of the possible genes involved in cancer and still more research is needed.

The director of the Institut d’Oncologia Vall d’Hebron, Josep Baselga, in this respect that, “the end of the day, cancer is a disease of the genome. It breaks down and ends up developing a tumor.”

In the DNA is stored almost all the hereditary information of the organism, related to structural and functional characteristics, so that if you analyze and compare the genome of different cells, healthy and tumor, there are some common areas and other different between them. This allows determination of common genetic characteristics in tumor cells, not present in healthy cells, which help to identify common patterns related to the tumor process.
Genetic markers for breast and colon

The number of repetitions of specific regions in the genome is not the only implication of genetics in cancer, because there are specific genes associated with various tumors. One such group is known as low-penetrance genes that are common in the population and give the wearer a small risk of developing a certain disease. Not only are related to cancer disease, but can also facilitate the development of other diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular problems. However, it is a necessary interaction of more than one risk to be considered for a particular disease.

In relation to breast cancer, seven were known far penetrance genes. However, a recent study conducted by the International Consortium of Breast Cancer (BCAC) has unveiled two new genes involved. The BCAC is an international consortium involving 27 research groups for breast cancer. Among them, three Spanish organizations: the National Cancer Centre (CNIO), Hospital Universitario La Paz Hospital in Madrid and Oviedo Monte Naranco.

The study, published in the journal “Nature Genetics”, it concludes that these two new genes and are nine penetrance genes are associated with breast cancer. As the number of genes discovered, can be designed better therapies and diagnostic for prevention. It is estimated that they participate in a 6% in the genetic component of this tumor.

Similarly, another study by Spanish researchers, in collaboration with other countries, reveals new genetic markers that increase the risk of developing colon cancer. These new markers can be helpful in determining the risk of developing the disease in people with colon cancer runs in your family. José Augusto García Agundez, Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Extremadura and collaborator in the study, explains that the new genetic markers “allow the realization of early diagnosis of the disease in a routine and massive, with a simple blood test .

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